International Science Index


Searching for an Effective Marketing in the Food Supplement Industry in Japan

Abstract:The market for "functional foods" and "foods with functional claims" that are effective in maintaining and improving health, has expanded year by year due to the entry of major food and beverage manufacturers following the introduction of the specified health food system in 1991 in Japan. To bring health claims related products or services to the market, it is necessary to let consumers to learn about these products or services; an effective marketing through advertising are important. This research proposes a framework for an effective advertisement medium for the food supplement industry by using survey data of 2,500 people.
[1] Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994, Public Law 103-417, 103RD CONGRESS, National Institutes of Health, Office of Dietary (Online). Available: Supplements About/DSHEA_Wording.aspx (accessed March 14, 2021).
[2] U.S. Food & Drug Administration, “Questions and Answers on Dietary Supplements,” (Online). Available: information-consumers-using-dietary-supplements/questions-and-answers-dietary-supplements (accessed February 1, 2021).
[3] Food Labelling Division, Consumer Affairs Agency, “The system of "Foods with Function Claims" has been launched!” (Online). Available:, (accessed February 2, 2021).
[4] Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, “Food with Health Claims, Food for Special Dietary Uses, and Nutrition Labeling,” (Online). Available: (accessed March 10, 2021).
[5] Consumer Affairs Agency, "Outline of Food Labelling Systems for Health and Nutrition," (Online). Available: en/policy/food_labeling/pdf/food_labeling_191001_0001.pdf (accessed February 2, 2021).
[6] Yano Research Institute Ltd., “Survey on the Health Food Market (2020),” (Online). Available: (accessed February 2, 2021). (Original in Japanese).
[7] S. Yoshikawa, S. Nishimaru, T. Tashiro, M. Yoshida, "Collection and Classification of Words for Description of Food Texture," Journal of Texture Studies, Nov;1(4), 1970, pp. 437-442.
[8] M. Hilliam, “Functional Foods: the Western consumer viewpoint,” Nutrition Reviews 54, 1996, S189–S194.
[9] S.F.L. Kirk, J.E. Cade, J.H. Barrett and M. Conner, “Diet and Lifestyle Characteristics Associated with Dietary Supplement Use in Women,” Public Health Nutrition 2, 1999, pp. 69–73.
[10] K.L. Radimer, A.F. Subar and F.E. Thompson, “Non vitamin, Non Mineral Dietary Supplements: Issues and Findings from NHANES III,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 100, 2000, pp. 447–454. Sparling MC & A.
[11] N. de Jong, M.C. Ocké, H.A.C. Branderhorst, R. Friele, Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users. British Journal of Nutrition: 89(2), 2003, pp. 273-281.
[12] G. Nocella and O. Kennedy, “Food health claims – What consumers understand”, Food policy, 37: 2012, pp. 571-580.
[13] J.E. Calfee and J.K. Pappalardo, “Public Policy Issues in Health Claims for Foods,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 10 (Spring), 1991, pp. 33–53.
[14] P.M. Ippolito, M. Pauline and A.D. Mathios, “Health Claims in Food Marketing: Evidence on Knowledge and Behavior in the Cereal Market,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 10, (Spring 1991), pp. 15–32.
[15] C.E. Hodgkins, B. Egan, M. Peacock, et al., “Understanding How Consumers Categories Health Related Claims on Foods: A Consumer-Derived Typology of Health-Related Claims,” Nutrients 11(3), 2019, 539.
[16] M. Wilson, “Structuring qualitative data: Multidimensional Scalogram Analysis”. In Research methods in psychology, Edited by: G. Breakwell, S. Hammond, and C. Fife-Schaw, 2000, pp. 281–293. London: Sage.
[17] D. Canter, J. Brown, and L. Groat, “A Multiple Sorting Procedure for studying conceptual systems”. In The Research Interview: Uses and Approaches, Edited by: M. Brenner, J. Brown and D. Canter, 1985, pp. 79–144. London: Academic Press.
[18] E. Zvulun, “Multidimensional scalogram analysis: the method and its application”. In Theory construction and data analysis in the behavioral sciences, Edited by: Shye, S. 1978. pp. 237–264. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
[19] N. Urala and L. Lähteenmäki "Consumers’ changing attitudes towards functional foods," Food Quality and Preference, 18(1), January 2007, pp. 1-12.
[20] M. Saher, A. Arvola, M. Lindeman, L. Lähteenmäki, "Impressions of functional food consumers," Appetite, 42(1), February 2004, pp. 79-89.
[21] S. Bhaskaran, S. and F. Hardley, “Buyers beliefs, attitudes and behaviour: foods with therapeutic claims,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 19, 2002, pp. 591–606.
[22] J. A. Bower, M. A. Saadat, and C. Whitten, “Effect of liking, information and consumer characteristics on purchase intention and willingness to pay more for a fat spread with a proven health benefit,” Food Quality and Preference, 14, 2003, pp. 65–74.
[23] D. N. Cox, A. Koster and C. G. Russell, “Predicting intentions to consume functional foods and supplements to offset memory loss using an adaptation of protection motivation theory,” Appetite, 43, 2004, pp. 55–64.
[24] N. de Jong, M. C. Ocke ́, H. A. C. Branderhorst, and R. Friele, “Demographic and lifestyle characteristics of functional food consumers and dietary supplement users,” British Journal of Nutrition, 89, 2003, pp. 273–281.
[25] N. Urala, and L. Lähteenmäki, “Attitudes behind consumers’ willingness to use functional foods,” Food Quality and Preference, 15, 2004, pp. 793–803.
[26] W. Verbeke, “Consumer acceptance of functional foods: socio-demographic, cognitive and attitudinal determinants,” Food Quality and Preference, 16, 2005, pp. 45–57.
[27] G. Nocella and O. Kennedy, “Food health claims – What consumers understand,” Food policy, 37, 2012, pp. 571-580.
[28] J. Haase and K.-P. Wiedmann, “The sensory perception item set (SPI): An exploratory effort to develop a holistic scale for sensory marketing,” Psychology & Marketing, 35(10), 2018, pp. 727-739.
[29] A. Krishna, Sensory Marketing. Research on the Sensuality of Products, 2010, Routledge, New York.
[30] A. Krishna, “An integrative review of sensory marketing: Engaging the senses to affect perception, judgment and behavior,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(3), 2012, pp. 332-351.
[31] H. Krishna, M. Alizadeh, D. Singh, U. Singh, N. Chauhan, M. Eftekhari, R. K. Sadh, “Somaclonal variations and their applications in horticultural crops improvement,” Biotech 6, 2016, 54.
[32] B. Hultén, N. Broweus, and M. van Dijk, Sensory Marketing, Basingstoke, 2009, Palgrave Macmillan.
[33] R. S. Elder and A. Krishna, "The Effects of Advertising Copy on Sensory Thoughts and Perceived Taste," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, 36(5), February 2010, pp.748-756.
[34] L. Adams and M. Geuens, “Healthy or unhealthy slogans: that’s the question,” Journal of Health Communication, 2007, 12, pp. 173–185.
[35] G. Roose and L. Mulier, "Healthy Advertising Coming to Its Senses: The Effectiveness of Sensory Appeals in Healthy Food Advertising," Foods 2020, 9(1), 51.
[36] G. Roose, M. Geuens, I. Vermeir, "From informational towards transformational advertising strategies? A content analysis of Belgian food magazine advertisements," British Food Journal, 120(6), 2018, pp. 1170-1182.
[37] K. J. Preacher and A. F. Hayes, SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 36(4), 2004, pp. 717–731.
[38] K. Rao, M. Sneathen, N. Bradbury and M. Nazzaro, “Using Single-Source Data to Drive Precise, Profitable Marketing,”