Environmental Study on Urban Disinfection Using an On-site Generation System
In this experimental study, the behaviors of Mixed Oxidant solution components (MOS) and sodium hypochlorite (HYPO) as the most commonly applied surface disinfectant were compared through the effectiveness of chlorine disinfection as a function of the contact time and residual chlorine. In this regard, the variation of pH, free available chlorine (FAC) concentration, and electric conductivity (EC) of disinfection solutions in different concentrations were monitored over 48 h contact time. In parallel, the plant stress activated by chlorine-based disinfectants was assessed by comparing MOS and HYPO. The elements of pH and EC in the plant-soil and their environmental impacts, spread by disinfection solutions were analyzed through several concentrations of FAC including 500 mg/L, 1000 mg/L, and 5000 mg/L in irrigated water. All the experiments were carried out at the service station of Sant Cugat, Spain. The outcomes indicated lower pH and higher durability of MOS than HYPO at the same concentration of FAC which resulted in promising stability of FAC within MOS. Furthermore, the pH and EC value of plant-soil irrigated by NaOCl solution were higher than that of MOS solution at the same FAC concentration. On-site generation of MOS as a safe chlorination option might be considered an imaginary future of smart cities.
 R. Singh, Chapter 2 - Water and Membrane Treatment. In R. Singh (Ed.). Membrane Technology and Engineering for Water Purification (Second Edition), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2015, pp. 81-178.
 P. Pal, Chapter 2 - Chemical Treatment Technology. In P. Pal (Ed.). Industrial Water Treatment Process Technology, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2017, pp. 21-63.
 A. D. Ogunniyi, C. E. Dandie, S. Ferro, B. Hall, B. Drigo, G. Brunetti, and E. Lombi, “Comparative antibacterial activities of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water and other chlorine-based sanitizers,” Scientific Reports, 9(1), 19955, 2019, doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-56248-7
 L. de Castro Medeiros, F.L.S. de Alencar, J.A. Navoni, et al. Toxicological aspects of trihalomethanes: a systematic review. Environ Sci Pollut Res, 26, 2019, 5316–5332. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-3949-z
 C. J. Kerr, K. S. Osborn, A. H. Rickard, G. D. Robson, and P. S. Handley, Biofilms in water distribution systems. In D. Mara & N. Horan (Eds.), Handbook of Water and Wastewater Microbiology London: Academic Press, 2003, pp. 757-775.
 A. Fargašová, “Plant stress activated by chlorine from disinfectants prepared on the base of sodium hypochlorite,” Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica, 16(2), 2017, 76-85. doi: 10.1515/nbec-2017-0011.